#### IIT (NTSE/Olympiad)

# Motion in one Dimension

__Comparative Study of Instantaneous Speed and Instantaneous Velocity__

__Comparative Study of Instantaneous Speed and Instantaneous Velocity__

**Comparative Study of Instantaneous Speed and Instantaneous Velocity**

Instantaneous velocity or simply velocity is defined as rate of change of particle's position with time = where the position of a particle at any instant changes by Δ in a small time Δ t. he magnitude of velocity is called speed i.e. speed = | velocity | i.e. v = | |

**Note :**In straight line motion there is no change in direction so and v both have same meaning.

**Note :**

**(a)**Velocity is a vector while speed is a scalar having same units (m/s) and dimension [LT

^{–1}]

**(b)**If during motion velocity remains constant throughout a given interval of time, the motion is said to be uniform and for uniform motion, = constant =

However converse may or may not be true i.e. If = , the motion may or may not be uniform.

**(c)**If velocity is constant, speed ( = | velocity |) will also be constant. However conversdree may or may not be true i.e. if speed = constant, velocity may or may not be constant as velocity has a direction in addition to magnitude which may or may not change. e.g. in case of uniform rectilinear motion. = constant and so speed || = constant while in case of uniform circular motion, v = constant but ≠ constant due to change in direction.

**(d)**Velocity can be positive or negative, as it is a vector but speed can never be negative as it is the magnitude of velocity i.e. v = ||

**(e)**If displacement is given as a function of time, the time derivative of displacement will give velocity and modulus of velocity gives speed.

e.g. s = A

_{0}– A

_{1}t + A

_{2}t

^{2}, v = = – A

_{1}+ 2A

_{2}t. So, initially (t = 0), velocity = – A

_{1}, while speed = |–A

_{1}| = A

_{1}

**Special Note :**It is common misconception, that Which is totally different from the above value of .

**(f)**As by definition, v = , the slope of displacement versus time graph gives velocity.

i.e. v = = tan θ = slope of s-t curve

(g) As, v = ⇒ ds = vdt

From figure vdt = dA. so, dA = ds

∴

Area under velocity versus time graph with proper algebraic sign gives displacement while without sign gives distance.

e.g. From the adjoining v-t graph.

The distance travelled by body in time t

_{3}= Area I + Area II + Area III and the displacement of body = Area II – Area III – Area I

#### IIT (Class X)

- Unit, Dimension & Error

- Vectors

- Motion in One Dimension
- Distance
- Displacement
- Comperative Study of Distance & Displacement
- Speed
- Velocity
- Comparative Study of Instantaneous Speed and Instantaneous Velocity
- Comparative Study Of Average Speed & Average Velocity
- Acceleration
- Motion With Uniform Acceleration
- Motion Under Gravity
- Relative – Velocity
- Points to Remember - Motion in One Dimension

- PROJECTILE MOTION

- NEWTON'S LAWS OF MOTION & FRICTION

- WORK, POWER, ENERGY & CONSERVATION LAWS

- CIRCULAR MOTION & ROTATIONAL DYNAMICS

- GRAVITATION