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  Biology (NTSE/Olympiad)  

4. Diversity In Living Organism

Kingdom Classification

Two Kingdom Classification :
Father of taxonomy - Carolus Linnaeus. He preposed following kingdoms.
Plantae :
Which included Bacteria, Fungi, Algae, Mosses, Liverworts, Ferns, Conifers and Flowering plants.
Animalia :
Included Protozoan, Sponges, Jelly fishes, Worms, Crabs, Insects, Millipedes, Centipedes, Spiders, Snails, Star fishes, Snakes, Frogs, Birds and Mammals.
Three Kingdom Classification :
This was suggested by german biologist, E. Haeckel in 1866.
As some microscopic single celled forms were unlike plants or animals altogether and could not be placed in earlier system, thus three kingdom system was proposed. It includes (1) plantae, (2) Animalia, (3) Protista ... contained all single celled organisms like protozoans and unicellular algae.
Four Kingdom Classification :
This was developed by Copeland in 1966.
As prokaryotes (Organisms without true nucleus) were different from eukaryotes (organism with true nucleus), a new group, monera was formed.
Five Kingdom Classification :
This most favoured scheme was proposed by R.H. Whittaker in 1969. Fungi could not find a suitable place in earlier system of classifications and thus whittaker’s five kingdom theory found favour amongst most biologists.
This classification includes :
(a) Plantae (b) Animalia
(c) Fungi (d) Protista
(e) Monera.
Six Kingdom Classification :
It was proposed by Woese, Kandler and Wealis (1990). They divided monera into Archae bacteria and Eubacteria.

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