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  Biology (NTSE/Olympiad)  

2. Respiration

Mammalian Respiratory System

Mammalian Respiratory System
The mammalian respiratory system consists of nasal cavity, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi, bronchioles and alveoli.-
The mammalian respiratory system consists of nasal cavity, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi, bronchioles and alveoli.
Nostril :
It is also called external nares.
Nasal Chamber :
Nasal septum divides nasal cavity into two nasal chamber by the nasal septum.
Internal nares :
There are posterior opening of nasal chambers that leads into pharynx.
Pharynx :
The pharynx provides passage to both air and food.
Laryngopharynx :
It is the lower part of pharynx and has a slit like aperature called glottis, which can be closed by a leaf like bilobed cartilage epiglottis, during swallowing of food bolus.
Larynx :
It is also called voice box or adam's apple or pomas adami.
Vocal cord :
In larynx, 2 pairs of vocal cord is found outer pair is false vocal cord whereas, inner pair is true vocal cord when air is forced through the larynx it cause vibration of true vocal cords and sound is produced.
Trachea (Wind pipe) :
It is long, tubular structure which runs downward through the neck in front of oesophagus. It is supported by cartilage to prevent collapse
Primary bronchi :
These are one pair of small thin walled tubular structure formed by the division of trachea. It further divides and end at alveoli.
Lungs :
lungs are present in thoracic cavity on either side of heart. covered by pleural membrane.

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