Chemistry (NTSE/Olympiad)  

6. Carbon and Its Compound


Carbon is most important element because it forms largest number of compounds which are useful in our daily life. In this chapter, we shall study about carbon and its compounds.
Important Terms and Concepts :
1. Carbon : Its atomic number is 6. Its mass number is 1.20. Its atomic mass is 12.011. Its melting point is 3550ºC and boiling point is 4830ºC. It occurs in free state as well as in combined state. 70% of our body is made up of carbon. It forms largest number of compounds. The earth crust contains only 0.02% of carbon.
2. Organic Compounds : Those compounds which consist of carbon essentially and hydrogen mostly along with other elements like oxygen, sulphur, nitrogen, halogens, etc. are called organic compounds.
3. Coal : It is a naturally occurring solid fuel which exists in the form of varying depths below the earth’s surface. It is formed by decay of vegetation that grew 40 to 300 million years ago, followed by chemical processes of condensation and polymerization under influence of temperature, pressure and time.
4. Petroleum : It is an oil found in rocks. It is a mixture of solid, liquid and gaseous hydrocarbons. It is a source of petrol, diesel, kerosene, petroleum ether, petroleum coke, petroleum wax, etc.

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