Democratic Politics (NTSE/Olympiad)
1. Democracy In The Contemporary World
Phases In The Expansion Of Democracy
(A) The Beginning :
(i) French Revolution of 1789 did not establish a secure and stable democracy in France. Throughout the nineteenth century, democracy in France was overthrown and restored several times. Yet the French Revolution inspired many struggles for democracy allover Europe.
(ii) In Britain, the progress towards democracy started much before the French Revolution. But the progress was very slow. Through the eighteenth and the nineteenth centuries, series of political events reduced the monarchy and feudal lords. The right to vote was granted to more and more people.
(iii) The British colonies of North America declared themselves independent in 1776. In the next few years these colonies came together to form the United States of America. They adopted a democratic constitution in 1787.
(iv) In the nineteenth century struggles for democracy often centered round political equality, freedom and justice. One major demand was the right for every adult citizen to vote. Many European countries that were becoming more democratic did not initially allow all people to vote. In some countries only people owning property had the right to vote. Often women did not have the right to vote. In the United States of America, the blacks all over the country could not exercise the right to vote until 1965.
(v) By 1900, New Zealand was the only country where every adult had voting right. Early democracies were established in Europe, North America and Latin America. (B) End of Colonialism : (C) Recent phase :