Inland Drainage And Lakes
The Gaghar : It is the most important river of inland drainage. It is a seasonal stream which rises on the lower slopes of Himalayas and form the boundary between Haryana and Punjab. The Tangri, Markanda, Saraswati and Chaitanya are the most important tributaries of the river.
Lakes : A lake is a body of water lying on a hollow on the earth’s surface and being surrounded by land.
Following are the major types of lakes found in India.
1. Fresh water lakes : Most of the fresh water lakes are in the Himalayan region. They are of glacial origin. The Dal lake, Bhimatal, Nainital, Lutak and Barapani are some of the fresh water lakes of India.
2. Lakes of Tectonic origin : Folding and faulting produce hollows in the earth’s crust. These hollows may contain either salt or fresh water lake. The Wular lake in Jammu & Kashmir is the result of tectonic activity.
3. Salt water lake : Any lake that has no natural drainage outlet, either as a surface of stream or as a sustained subsurface flow, will become saline. The Sambhar in the desert region of Rajasthan is a salt water lake. Its water is used for producing salt.
4. Man made lakes : In order to harness water for generation of hydel power, to provide irrigation water to crops and to provide drinking water to urban places, a number of lakes have been constructed. e.g. Govind Sagar and Govind Ballabh Pant Sagar.
5. Lunar Lake situated in Maharashtra is a crater lake.
6. Chilka Lake situated in Puri district of Orissa & south of the Mahanadi delta is the biggest lake of the country.
7. Kolleru Lake is deltaic Lake of Andhra Pradesh situated between the Krishna & Godavari delta.
8. Pulicat Lake situated in the north of Chennai is a shallow lagoon. It has been barred by a long sandpit which is actually Sri Harikota Island.
9. Loktak Lake situated in Manipur is the largest fresh water lake in the North East India. Keibul lamjao, the only floating National Park of the country is situated here.
10. Vembanad Lake is a lagoon in Kerala and is an important tourist spot. Coconut islands are located in it.
11. Gohna Lake situated near Devprayag in Garhwal has been formed by a huge landslide across a tributary of the Gange.