2. Pastoralists in the Modern World
Impact Of Colonialism And Modern States On Pastoralism
The process of colonalisation started in the 16th century. During the earlier phase of colonialism Spain, Portugal, England, France and Holland established their colonies in the continents of America, Asia and Africa. The Second stage of imperialism began with the 8th decade of the 19th century. During this stage a race started among the European countries to capture more and more colonies outside Europe. Apart from England and France, some new countries like Germany, Belgium , Russia, Japan and America also became active contenders in this race of colonization. The spread of colonalism and imperialism had a deep impact on the pastoralism.
1. After colonalisation their mobility was restricted. Now the people had limited area to move.
2. The new rulers encouraged settlement which had adverse impact on the herds and the people.
3. The colonies were to be used as source of raw material so the new rulers encouraged commercial agricultural. The pasture were converted into big farms.
4. To exploit the natural resources of their colonies the European countries started building roads and railway tracks. This resulted in the loss of pastures.
5. With the invention of modern technology pastoral nomadism became non-existent in many parts of the world.
6. The introduction of state farming system had adverse impact on the pastoral people.
7. Exploitation of oil resources and the difficulties posed to nomads by the multiplicity of political boundaries, have also reduced the importance of this mode of livelihood.
8. Even in these days most of the governments of the countries like China, Egypt, Israel, Saudi Arabia etc. are forcing the people to give up pastoral nomadism so that pasture can be used for other purposes.
9. Mining and petroleum industries has also limited their movement as these industries operate in dry lands.
10. Many nomads are being encouraged to try sedentary agriculture or to work for mining or petroleum industries.
The researcher still believed that the pastoralist way of life is a efficient system; one of the few ways of supporting a population in a difficult environment and representing a sustainable approach to land use. But due to modernisation, globalization and privatisation pastoral nomadism will be confined to areas that can not be irrigated or that lack valuable raw materials.