History (NTSE/Olympiad)  

4. Print Culture and The Modern World

Glossary (Print Culture and The Modern World)

1. Calligraphy : Decorative writing; Art of writing beautifully using fine pen ink, etc.
2. Autobiography : Story of one’s own life written by the author himself or herself.
3. Anthology : Collection of passages from literature, especially poetry and song.
4. Mechanical Press : A press for printing which is operated by machine.
5. Scribes : Ancient & medieval copyist of manuscripts.
6. Manuscripts : Book or document written by hand; authors original copy hand written or typed, not printed.
7. Vellum : Fine parchment originally from skin of calf or other animal. Manuscript written on this.
8. Parchment : Skin of animal like goat or sheep specially prepared for writing, painting etc.
9. Foliage : Leaves, Leafage.
10. Compositors : One who setup type for printing.
11. Ballad : Sentimental song with repeated melody ; poem or song in short stanzas narrating a popular story.
12. Tavern : Inn or public house where people gather for a drink.
13. New Testament : Part of Bible concerned with teachings of Christ and his earliest followers.
14. Protestant Reformation movement : A movement of protest against the corrupt practices of the Catholic Church. The movement was led by Martin Luther, a German monk.
15. Chapbooks : Cheap pocket size books available at roadside shops of books.
16. Lithography : A process of printing from stone or metal surface so that the ink addresses only to the design requested to be printed.
17. Vernacular Language : Language or dialect of the country, language spoken by a particular clan or group.
18. Despotism : A system of governance in which absolute power is exercised by an individual, unregulated by legal and constitutional checks.
19. Ulemas : Legal scholars of Islam and the Sharia (a body of the Islamic law).
20. Fatwa : A legal pronouncement on Islamic law usually given by a 'mufti' (legal scholar) to clarify issues on which the law is uncertain.
21. Marco Polo : Marco Polo was one of the greatest explorers who returned to Italy in 1295 after many years of exploration in China. Marco polo brought the knowledge of woodblock printing to Europe.
22. Biliotheque Bleue : These are low priced small books printed in France. These were printed on poor quality paper and bound in cheap blue covers.
23. Johann Gutenberg : Johann Gutenberg was a German goldsmith and the inventor credited with inventing the movable type of printing in Europe.


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