2. The Nationalist Movement in Indo-China
Emerging From The Shadow Of China
Emerging From The Shadow Of China :
(i) Vietnam gained formal independence in 1945, before India, but it took another three decades of fighting before the Republic of Vietnam was formed.
(ii) Indo-China comprises the modern countries of Vietnam, Laos and Cambodia. Its early history shows many different groups of people living in this area under the shadow of the powerful empire of China. Even when an independent country was established in what is now northern and central Vietnam, its rulers continued to maintain the Chinese system of government as well as Chinese culture.
Vietnam was also linked to what has been called the maritime silk route that brought in goods, people and ideas. Other networks of the trade connected it to the hinterlands where non-Vietnamese people such as the Khmer Cambodians lived.
(i) Colonial Domination and Resistance :
(1) The colonisation of Vietnam by the French brought the people of the country into conflict with the coloniser in all the walks of life.
(2) Nationalism in Vietnam emerged through the effects at different sections of society to fight against the French and their policy.
(3) French troops invaded Vietnam in 1858 and by the mid 1880s they had established their rule over the northern region.
(4) After the French-Chinese war the French assumed control of Tonkin and Annan and in 1887, French Indo-China was formed.
(5) In the following decades the French consolidated their position. Nationalist resistance was developing day by day.