Education In Russia
Russia has a long-standing tradition in high-quality education for all citizens. It probably has also one of the best mass-eduction systems in the world producing a literacy rate (98%) exceeding most Western European countries. Education is split into a compulsory Basic Education, and ongoing Higher Education.
Compulsory Basic Education
Basic general education lasts for nine years. Graduates of this level may continue their education at senior high school to receive secondary general education. They may also enter an initial vocational school or non-university level higher education institutions. Initial vocational schools include PTU (Professional’no-technicheskoe uchilische) which offer one-and-a-half to two years’ purely professional education and a Professional’ny Litsei which offer joint professional and secondary general education for three to four years and skilled workers’ training at different levels.
Higher education is provided by public and non-public (non-State) accredited higher education institutions. There are two levels of higher education:
Basic higher education (4 years) leading to the Bakalavr’s degree, the first university level degree. This is equivalent to the B.Sc. degree in the US or Western Europe Postgraduate higher education (5-6 years or more). After two years, students are entitled to receive a Magistr’s degree. This is equivalent to a Master’s Degree (M.Sc, M.A.) in the US or Western Europe. After a Master’s degree, students can continue to study towards a doctoral degree: Kandidat Nauk degree (the first level, equivalent to Ph.D.) and Doktor Nauk degree (the second, highest level, equivalent to Professor).
Russia’s higher education system started with the foundation of the universities in Moscow and St. Petersburg in the middle of the 18th century. The system was constructed similar to that of Germany.
Top Universities in Russia
1. Lomonosov Moscow State University
2. Saint-Petersburg State University
3. Novosibirsk State University
4. Bauman Moscow State Technical University
5. Moscow State Institute of International Relations (MGIMO University)
6. Tomsk State University
7. Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology (State University)
8. National Research Nuclear University “MEPhI”
9. St. Petersburg Polytechnic University
10. National Research University – Higher School of Economics (HSE)