Chapter : 2. Pastoralists in the Modern World

B. The borders are closed

(i) From the late nineteenth century, the colonial government began imposing various restrictions on the mobility of the pastures. Special permits were issued to the people. They were not allowed to move out with their stock without special permits. And it was difficult to get permits without trouble and harassment.
(ii) Pastoralists were also not allowed to enter the markets in white areas. In many regions, they were prohibited from participating in any form of trade. So now they were fully dependent on their stock.
(iii) When restrictions were imposed on pastoral movements, grazing lands came to be continuously used and the quality of pastures declined. This in turn created a further shortage of forage for animals and the deterioration of animal stock.
(iv) Now most of the nomads were forced to live within a semi-arid tract prone to frequent droughts.

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