Physics (NTSE/Olympiad)  

4. Gravitation

Earth's Gravitational Force

The force which earth exerts on a body is called 'force of gravity'. i.e.
Where M = mass of the earth, R = radius of the earth.
Due to this force, a body released from some height on the earth's surface falls towards the earth with its velocity increasing at a constant rate.
Acceleration due to Gravity :
The acceleration produced in a body due to attraction of earth is called the acceleration due to gravity and is denoted by 'g'.

near the earth surface g on moon ≈
A body moving upwards with some initial velocity, experiences a retardation of 9.8 m/s2 & its velocity decreases continuously unless it becomes zero.
After this, it again starts falling towards the earth with the same acceleration of 9.8 m/s2.
The value of g is minimum at equator and maximum at poles.
The value of g does not depend upon the mass of the body falling towards the earth.

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