Ex

  Chemistry (NTSE/Olympiad)  

4. Structure Of Atoms

Isotopes, Isobars & Isotones

(A) Isotopes
Isotopes are atoms of the same element which have the same atomic number but different mass numbers.
Example. Hydrogen is the common example which has three isotopes. These have the same atomic number, one, but different mass numbers 1, 2, and 3. These three isotopes are commonly known as hydrogen or protium, deuterium (D) and tritium (T) respectively. Since atomic number is same for all the three, they all have one electron and therefore, one proton but different neutrons.
(1) Hydrogen At. No. = 1, Mass no. = 1
Electrons = 1, Protons = 1, Neutrons = 0
It is also represented as
(ii) Deuterium At. No = 1, Mass no. = 2
Electron = 1, Protons = 1, Neutrons = 1
It is also represented as or D
(iii) Tritium At. No = 1, Mass no. = 3
Electron = 1, Protons = 1, Neutrons = 2
It is also represented as or T.
Isotopes of hydrogen
0
  Protium Deuterium Tritium
Atomic number, Z 1 1 1
Mass number, A 1 2 3
Number of protons 1 1 1
Number of electrons 1 1 1
Number of neutrons 1 2
Electronic configuration K K K
  1 1 1

Some important points regarding isotopes
Isotopes are atoms of same element having the same atomic number but different mass numbers.
Isotopes have same number of protons and electrons but different neutrons.
Isotopes have same electrical charge on their nuclei
Since all the isotopes contain same number of electrons, they have same chemical properties.


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