Landsteiner discovered four blood groups in human beings based on the mutual compatibility of the antigens and antibodies. They are A, B, AB and O
A person having O blood group
can give blood to all the groups and hence called Universal donar
Similarly a person with AB blood group
is called Universal Recipient
as he can receive blood of all other groups. Blood group O
does not contain any antigen on the surface of R.B.C therefore, no reaction will occur with the blood of the recipient
The plasma of blood having blood group AB
do not have antibodies therefore reaction will not occur with the antigen of the donars blood. Rh factor (Rhesus factor) :
It is a kind of antigen in the blood, which was first found in the Rhesus monkey
. On the basis of presence or absence of Rh factor human beings can be divided as- Rh positive (Rh+) and Rh negative (Rh–).
They are much important in child birth. If blood of baby (embryo) is Rh+ and mother is Rh–. She may lose her baby as antibodies will attack the baby (nowadays, this condition is medically supposed not to be so serious and certain techniques and procedures are available to save the baby).