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  Democratic Politics (NTSE/Olympiad)  

3. Constitution Design

Salient Features Of The Indian Constitution

The Constitution Assembly under the Presdientship of Dr. Rajendra Prasad framed the Indian constitution after a good deal of labour extending over to about three years and enacted it on 26th November, 1949. The new Constitution was, however, adopted on 26th January, 1950 when India was declared as a Sovereign Democratic Republic with Dr. Rajendra Prasad as its first President. All the ideals envisaged in the Preamble to the constitution of India, such as Sovereignty, Socialism, Secularism, Democracy, Republicanism, Justice, Liberty, Equality and Fraternity etc. guide all the articles of the Indian Constitution. As such this constitution has become remarkable for certain unique features of its own, which are as follows :
Written and Detailed Constitution : Like the Constitution of the United States of America, the Indian Constitution is a written one and is available in book form. The framers of this constitution tried to put in black and white everything about the three organs of the Government i.e., Executive, Legislature and Judiciary, Citizenship, Fundamental Rights, Directive Principles of the State policy, Relations between the Centre and its Units, the Public Services and about what not. Consequently, the Indian Constitution has become the most voluminous Constitution in the world. It consists of 395 Articles, 9 Schedules and several Amendments. Following are the reasons for the extreme length of the Indian Constitution :
1. Jennings and Young write
2. Both Rigid and Flexible
3. Federal in Structure and Unitary in Spirit
4. Parliamentary Form of Government
5. A Secular State
6. A Socialist State
7. A Sovereign Democratic Republic
8. Universal Adult Franchise
9. Fundamental Rights of the Citizens
10. Supreme Court as the Guardian
11. Single Citizenship
12. Official Language

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