1. French Revolution
Causes Of The French Revolution
1. Economic Crisis : The seven Years war was fought from 1756 to 1763. The War was fought between Austria, Sweden, Russia and Spain on one side and Prussia, Britain and Honover on the other side. The war had a deep impact on the economy of France. There was no alternative for the king except leaving heavy taxes.
2. Excessive Taxation :
(i) Before the Revolution, the common people were groaning under the burden of heavy taxes.
(ii) The system of taxation was unjust and unreasonable. The upper class which consisted of the nobles and the church-fathers were exempted from all sorts of taxes. The burden of taxation was passed on to the masses whose life was one of misery, starvation and humiliation.
(iii) The expenditure of the government was ever increasing on account of useless wars and extravagance rulers.
(iv) With every increase in the demand for money, fresh taxes were imposed on the common people.
(v) People were forced to pay all kinds of taxes. There was the land tax, the road tax, the toll tax, the church tax, the salt tax and the tariff duties charged for moving goods from one province to another, up or down or across a river and so on. Sometimes four fifths of the total income of a farmer would go towards the payment of taxes.
(vi) Taxes were taille, the direct land tax, salt tax known as Gabelle, feudal dues or payments were taken by nobility and taxes known as tithe was taken the church.