History (NTSE/Olympiad)  

3. Work, Life & Leisure - Cities in Count. World

Cities and the Challenges of the Environment

Cities and the Challenges of the Environment
(i) It is a natural process when a rural hamlet is transformed into an urban area, the natural resources are disturbed.
(ii) The demolition of hills, reclamation of sea land, clearing of the forest created the ecological imbalance.
(iii) Large quantities of industrial refuse and waste polluted the air and water. These are the important post requisites of the urban life which should be managed.
(iv) In nineteenth century coal was the only source of energy to be used at homes and industries. The fumes of coal definitely resulted in grey skies, black fog and black vegetation. This type of pollution caused not only natural imbalance but also diseases like T.B., Asthma and so on.
(v) In United Kingdom cities like Leeds, Manchester and Bradford and in India, Calcutta was facing the problem related to smoke and air pollution. In England Smoke Abetment Act was passed in 1847 and 1853. However these acts could not work to clean the air.
(vi) In 1863, Calcutta became the first Indian city to get smoke nuisance legislation.
(vii) In India in 1920 rice mills of Tollygunj started to burn rice husk instead of coal. But this was not a workable solution. The black soot of rice husk continuously rained and created the problems for common man.
(i) From the above discussion it is clear that urban life if unplanned creates starting problems, but inspite of serious problem people are attracted because of the freedom and opportunity.
(ii) The brief of Durgacharans novel envisaged the earth full of opportunities and materialistic achievements of which even heaven was imperfect. the only point to worry for Gods who visited Calcutta was the social and economic mobility which was unfit in the traditional hereditary caste system. of India.


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