Democratic Politics (NTSE/Olympiad)  

4. Challenges to Democracy

Different Contexts, Different Challenges

Different Contexts, Different Challenges
Case and context:
(i) Chile : General Pinochet’s government defeated, but military still in control of many institutions.
(ii) Poland : After the first success of solidarity, the government imposed martial law and banned solidarity.
(iii) Ghana : Just attained independence Nkrumah elected president.
(iv) Mayanmar : Suu Kyi under house arrest for more than 15 years army rulers getting global acceptance.
(v) International organisations : US as the only super power disregards the UN and takes unilateral action.
(vi) Mexico : Second free election after the defeat or PRI in 2000; defeated candidate alleges rigging.
(vii) China : Communist Party adopts economic reforms but maintain monopoly over political power.
(viii) Pakistan : General Musharraf hold referendum allegations of fraud in voters list.
(ix) Iraq : Widespread sectarian violence as the new government fails to establish its authority.
(x) South Africa : Mandela retires from active politics, pressure on his successor Mbeki to withdraw some concessions given to White minority.
(xi) US, Guantanamo Bay : UN Secretary General calls this a violation of international law, US refused to respond.
(xii) Saudi Arabia : Women not allowed to take part in public activities no freedom of religion for minorities.
(xiii) Yugoslavia : Ethanic tension between Serbs and Albanians on the rise in the province of Kosovo Yugoslavia disintegrated.
(xiv) Belgium : One round of constitutional change taken place, but the Dutch speakers not satisfied; they want more autonomy.
(xv) Sri Lanka : The peace talks between the government and the LTTE breaks down renewed violence.
(xvi) US, Civil Right : Blacks have won equal rights, but are still poor, less educated and marginalised.
(xvii) Ireland : The civil war has ended but Catholics and Protestants yet to develop trust.
(xviii) Nepal : Constituent Assembly about to be elect, unrest in Terai areas Maoists have not surrendered arms.
(xix) Bolivia : Morales, a supporter of water struggle, becomes Prime Minister, MNCs threaten to leave the country.


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