Geography (NTSE/Olympiad)  

3. Drainage

Drainage of India

Drainage : The term drainage is used to describe the river system or an area.
Drainage basin : The area drained by a single river system is called a drainage basin.
Water divide : The upland that separates the flow of two rivers or river system.
Drainage Pattern
A drainage system refers to the origin and development of stream through time while drainage pattern means spatial arrangement and form of drainage system in term of geometrical shapes in the area. They are different types.
1. Trellis Pattern : In this pattern, the tributaries can be seen meeting the main stream at right angle.
2. Dendritic Drainage pattern : The tributaries come from all directions to meet the main river.
3. Parallel Drainage Pattern : In this pattern numerous rivers which are parallel to each other and follow the regional slope.
4. Radial Drainage pattern : Radial drainage pattern also known as centrifugal pattern is formed by the streams which diverge from a central higher point in all directions.
On the basis of origin, two broad drainage system of India are generally recognised.
1. The Himalayan Rivers
2. The Peninsular Rivers.
River-system : A river alongwith its tributaries may be called a river system.
 The Himalayan riversThe Peninsular rivers
1These rivers originate from the glaciers These rivers originate on the plateau
2Their catchment area is very largeTheir catchment area is very small
3These rivers pass through gorge and carve deep valleysThese rivers form shallow valleys
4These rivers are youngThese have acquired maturity
5These are engaged in high erosion activityThese have very little erosional activity
6These are useful for irrigationThese are of little use for irrigation
7These rivers are perennial, i.e., they flow throughout the yearThese rivers are non-perennial
8Indus, Ganga, Brahmaputra are the main riversGodavari, Krishna, Kaveri, Narmada and Tapti are major rivers


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