Biology (NTSE/Olympiad)  

4. Diversity In Living Organism

Division : Bryophyta

Division : Bryophyta -
The division Bryophyta (Greek word Bryon = moss ; phyton = plant) includes the simplest and most primitive non-vascular land plants having an embryo stage in their life cycle.
The plants are essentially terrestrial but require water at every step in the life cycle. They usually grow in moist and shady places – on the sides of ditches, ponds, pools, lakes; on the banks of streams; damp soil; wet hills and many other similar habitats. They are called amphibians of the plant kingdom.
The main plant body is gametophyte (haploid body responsible to produce gametes). It is flat, green thallus and lacks true leaves and roots. Plants are fixed by means of hair-like rhizoids.
The vascular tissues (xylem and phloem) are completely absent.
Sex organs are multicellular. The male sex organs are antheridia and female sex organs are archegonia.
An embryo is formed upon fertilization. Sporophyte lives as a parasite over gametophyte.
Examples (figure) Liverworts (Riccia, Marchantia), hornworts (Anthoceros) and Mosses (Funaria, Polytrichum.


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