Biology (NTSE/Olympiad)  

4. Diversity In Living Organism

Kingdom : Monera (Gk. Monos – Single)

Kingdom : Monera (Gk. Monos – Single)
Kingdom, Monera includes the most ancient, the smallest, the simplest and the most plentiful prokaryotes. These organisms are most primitive. Monerens are characterized by the following.
The organisms are mostly unicellular. The cyanobacteria are, however, filamentous.
They do not have a definite nucleus. The genetic material is a circular, double-stranded, helical DNA (Deoxyribonucleic acid) not enclosed by a nuclear envelope. Such organisms which do not have a definite nucleus are called prokaryotic.
The cytoplasm of organisms is devoid of membrane bound organelles, i.e., mitochondria, plastids, Golgi apparatus, lysosomes, endoplasmic reticulum, centrosome, etc. are lacking. However, the ribosomes are present.
Cell wall is generally present. some of prokaryotes do not have cells wall.
The mode of nutrition of organisms in this group can be either : (i) Autotrophic (i.e., synthesize their own food by photosynthesis) or (ii) Heterotrophic (i.e. get their organic food from the environment).
Single stranded flagella are present in many monerans.
Kingdom Monera includes true bacteria, actinomycetes, cyanobacteria or blue green algae, mycoplasma and archaebacteria.

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