Biology (NTSE/Olympiad)  

1. The cell


Mitochondria :
Introduction :
• A single mitochondrion is present in unicellular green alga, Microsterias. Number of mitochondria varies from 50¬–50,000 per cell. Mitochondria of a cell are collectively known as chondriome.
Historical Account :
C. Benda (1897) gave the name Mitochondria (Mitos, thread + Chondrion, granules).
• Term ‘Bioplast’ for mitochondria was used by Altman.
Ultrastructure :
• Mitochondria are rod shaped organelles, bounded by a double membrane envelope.
• The outer membrane is smooth, the inner membrane surrounds a central cavity of matrix. Central cavity is filled with jel like substances
• Inner membranes folds are called cristae, these folding are tubular and called microvilli.
• Mitochondria contain electron transport systems aggregated into compact structure. F1 particles or oxysome, tennis racket like bodies on inner membrane involved in oxidation & phosphorylation.
• Kreb’s cycle occurs in mitochondria.
• Each particle is made up of base, stalk and head.
Functions of Mitochondria :
• Mitochodria are called power plants or power houses or cellular furnaces.
• Synthesis of ATP (Adenosine Tri-phosphate) in mitochondria is called oxidative phosphorylation.
• Mitochondria as place of cellular respiration was first observed by Hogeboom.

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