Geography (NTSE/Olympiad)  

1. Climate

Climate Of India

The climate of India is described as of monsoon type. Derived from an Arabic word ‘mausim’, monsoon refers to the seasonal reversal in the wind direction through the year. This type of climate is found mainly in the south and the south east Asia. Despite an overall unity and commonality in the general pattern, there are perceptible regional variations in climatic conditions within the country.
The temperature touches as high as 50ºC in the western desert during the summer season, whereas it drops down as low as –40ºC in Leh during the winter. Similarly, variations are noticeable not only in the type of precipitation but also in its amount.
Climate Controls There are six major controls of climate of any place. They are - 1. latitude 2. altitude 3. pressure and wind system 4. distance from the sea 5. ocean current 6. relief features.
Latitude : Due to the curvature of the earth, the amount of solar energy received varies according to the latitude.
Altitude : Air temperature decreases from the equator towards the poles. As one goes from the surface of the earth to higher altitudes. The atmosphere becomes less dense and temperature decreases. The hills are therefore cooler during summer.
The Pressure and Winds : The system of any area depends, on the latitude and altitude of the place. Thus it influences the temperature and rain fall pattern.
Distance from the sea : The sea exerts a moderating influence on climate. As the distance from the sea increases, its moderating influence decreases.
Ocean current : Ocean current along with on shore winds affects the climate of the coastal areas.
Relief : It plays a major role in determining the climate of a place. High mountains act as barriers for cold or hot winds. They may also cause precipitation.

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