Geography (NTSE/Olympiad)  

1. Resource & Development

Soil Erosion and its Factors

Soil Erosion : It is the removal of soil by the forces of nature like wind and water, more rapidly than the various soil forming process can replace it.
Human Factor Causing Soil Erosion
1. Deforestation : This has resulted in reckless cutting of forest which has led to the problem of soil erosion
2. Overgrazing : This leads to loose structure of soil and the soil is easily washed away by rains.
3. Faulty Methods of Agriculture : Ploughing field along the slope makes it easier for running water and wind to cause erosion.
Natural factors are the force of wind glacier & water.
Running water causes erosion in the following ways:
1. When deep cuts & channels are formed through the clayey soil gulleys are formed.
2. When land become unfit for cultivation it is called bad land.
3. When water flows as sheet over large areas down a slope, the soil is washed away, it is called sheet erosion.
4. Wind causes erosion by blowing away the loose soil over flat or sloping land.
Steps that can be taken to improve soil erosion by farming :
1. Ploughing should be done along contour lines. This will reduce the flow of water.
2. Steps should be cut on the slopes to make terraces & restrict erosion.
3. Field should be divided into strips & strips of grass should be left to grow between the crops. Such strip cropping breaks the force of wind.
4. Planting trees in a row as shelter belts. These shelter belts check the spread of desert.

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