Chapter : 2. Socialism In Europe & The Russian Revolution

First World War And Foundation Of Soviet State

(ii) Second Stage, October Revolution (Bolshevik Revolution) : On November 7, 1917 there broke out a second revolution in Russia which is known as the ‘Bolshevik Revolution’. The most important feature of October Revolution was that it was accomplished without shedding blood. It has popularly been called the October Revolution because according to the old Russian calendar, it began on October 25, 1917. Lenin was the most important leader of this revolution.
Lenin feared the Provisional government would set up a dictatorship. He began discussions for an uprising against the government. On 16 October 1917, Lenin persuaded the Petrograd Soviet and the Bolshevik Party to agree to a socialist seizure of power. A Military Revolutionary committee was appointed by the Soviet under Leon Trotsky to organize the seizure. The uprising began on 24 October. Military men loyal to the government seized the building of two Bolshevik newspapers, military Revolutionary committee ordered its supporters to seize government offices and arrest ministers. The ship Aurora shelled the Winter palace. The city was taken under control committee's control and the ministers surrendered. At a meeting of the all Russian Congress of Soviets in Petrograd, the majority approved the Bolshevik action. Uprising took place in other cities.
The four-fold programme of the Bolshevik party was :
(i) Land to the tiller
(ii) Food to the hungry
(iii) Industry to the workers
(iv) Peace
All power to the Soviets was the slogan of the party. On 7 November 1917, armed workers and groups of revolutionaries, armed with guns and supported by units of the Russian army, advanced upon the Winter Palace in Petrograd. The members of the Provisional Government were put behind the bars and its headquarter, the Winter Palace, was captured by the revolutionaries. An All Russian Congress of Soviets met on the same day and took over full political power.

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