Chapter : 2. Socialism In Europe & The Russian Revolution

Major Factor Responsible For The Revolution

1. Social Condition :
(i) The European countries had undergone important social changes during the 19th century but the base of Russian society was still feudalistic.
(ii) The society was divided into two classes the privileged and the non-privileged.
The privileged class : It comprised of prosperous and influential people who had all the political and other rights.
The non-privileged Class : It consisted of farmers and workers who formed about 90% of the Russian population. They had to work hard to meet their both ends and had to bear the barbarities of the privileged classes.
2. Economic Condition :
Backwardness of industry and agriculture was the main factor responsible for the Russian Revolution. Process of industrialization began very late in Russia. Then it developed at a very fast rate. The industrial Revolution had split the society into two classes :
1. The Capitalist
2. The Workers
The owners of the means of production like factories, mills and land began to be called capitalists and those who operated the machines and produced goods were known as workers. The condition of workers was miserable.
(i) As there was shortage of capital in the country, more than half of the capital investment was made by the foreign investment was made by the foreign investors who were interested only in making huge and quick profits without having any concern for the miserable conditions of the workers.
(ii) The Russian capitalists too, proved to be a source of exploitation of the workers. Whether factories were owned by foreigners or Russians, the conditions of work were not satisfactory.
(iii) The workers had to work from 12 to 15 hours a day but wages paid to them were very less.

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