History (NTSE/Olympiad)  

2. Pastoralists in the Modern World

Different Forms of Pastoralism

1. Nomadic Pastoralism :
(i) Under this people keep on moving along with their animals in search of grazing areas.
(ii) This activity is of subsistence type and is more common in areas of dry climate not suitable for crop farming such as the Arabian desert and parts of Sahara.
(iii) Because a majority of the members of the group are in some way directly involved with herd management, the household moves with these seasonal migrations.
Herders to Farmers :
Some African tribes such as the Masai, Fulani and Bushmen are, by tradition, herders. The people used to migrate each season with their herds of cattle across the savannas but many can no longer find enough grazing land. Some have had to settle down and turn to planting and farming crops, often poor, infertile land. Many of these tribes people know little about growing crops. As most of them are failing to a living off the land, they have no choice but to move to the towns where they will almost certainly have to live in slum conditions and try to survive on the streets. Their age-old way of live is changing quickly.
Transhumance : Under this members of the group move the herd seasonally form one area to another, often between higher and lower pastures. The rest of the group are able to stay in the same location, resulting in longer-standing housing.
Mobility throughout altitudes and the resulting precipitation differences is important. In East Africa, different animals are taken to different regions throughout the year, to match the seasonal patterns of precipitation.
This type of pattern is also followed in Northern India where Gujjars move from hilly areas to plains during winter.

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