Chapter : 2. Socialism In Europe & The Russian Revolution

The Crisis of Tzarism

The Russian Revolution (1917), popularly known as the Bolshevik revolution, was a significant event not only of Russian history but of the history of the whole world. It was the first successful socialist revolution which changed the very course of the world history for many decades.
Socialism : The word ‘socialism’ indicates the view that all the resources of a land should be used for the welfare of the society as a whole and not for the benefit of individuals or a particular class of individuals. In the view of the majority of socialist thinkers it also means that the resources should not only be used for but also owned and managed collectively by the society as a whole.
The Crisis of Tzarism
During the 19th century, almost entire Europe was undergoing important social, economic and political transformation. Most of the countries were republic. The rule of the old feudal aristocracies had been replaced by that of the new middle classes. Russia, however, was still living in ‘the old world’ under the autocratic rule of the tzars, as the Russian emperors were called........................................

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