2. Pastoralists in the Modern World
Pastoral nomadism is a form of subsistence agriculture based on the herding of domesticated animals. The word pastoral refers to sheep herding. It is adapted to dry climates where planting crops is impossible. Pastoral nomads live primarily in the large belt of arid and semi-arid land that includes North Africa, the Middle East, and parts of Central Asia. The Bedouins of Saudi Arabia and North Africa and the Masai of East Africa are examples of nomadic groups. Only approximately 15 million people are pastoral nomads, but they sparsely occupy approximately 20 percent of Earth’s land area.
Most of the researchers and historians believe that pastoralism is derived directly from hunting and food gathering. It is believed that hunters of wild goats and sheep already had knowledge of herd dynamics and the ecological needs of the herd animals. So they adopted nomadic herding as their occupation. But there are some researchers who believed that it was pressure of population on land which forced there people to adopt the occupation.