Chapter : 2. Socialism In Europe & The Russian Revolution

Major Factor Responsible For The Revolution

3. Political Causes :
(i) Tzar Nicholas II during whose regime Bolshevik Revolution broke out, was an inefficient and short-sighted person. He was a ruthless ruler having no concern with administration or the welfare of his subjects.
(ii) Tzar was dominated by his German wife Tzarina-Alexandra who was under great influence of a hypocritical and corrupt saint Rasputin, the Holy Devil.
(iii) The common masses or their representatives had no participation in the political system of the country.
(iv) The Russian bureaucracy was top, heavy, inflexible and inefficient. Neither they were in touch with the people, nor did they care to improve the plight of the masses.
4. Oppressed Nationalities or Dissatisfaction among Non-Russians :
The Russian Czars had succeeded in building a vast empire by conquering large parts of Eastern Europe, Central and far Eastern Asia. Thus non-Russians like Jew, Poles, Finns, Germans, Uzbeks etc. were also living in Russian empire. They had different languages, cultures and traditions. But the Tzarist government, who wanted to forcibly Russianise them, adopted the policy of imposing the Slav (Russian) language, culture and institutions on them. The knowledge of Russian language was made compulsory for government jobs and political rights of the non-Russian were highly curtailed. Many restrictions were imposed on non-Russians in the field of religion as well. Consequently the oppressed nationalities came in conflict with Tzardom and began to clamor for their independence and equal status.
5. Role of thinkers and philosophers :
Russian people were influenced by the writings of great philosophers and writers like Tolstoy, Karl Marx and Bukanin. They influenced the minds of the people and prepared them mentally to rise against unjust regime.
The liberal and radical ideas of the west penetrated into the country in one way or the other and gave birth to an intellectual ferment. Thus, there was a mental upheaval in Russia before the outbreak of actual revolution.

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