Chapter : 3. Nationalism in India

The Idea of Satyagraha & The Rowlatt Act

(i) The Idea of Satyagraha :
(1) Mahatma Gandhi returned to India from South Africa in January 1915. He had successfully fought the racist ragime with a novel method of mass agitation, which he called Satyagraha. It suggested that if the cause was true, if the struggle was against injustice, then physical force was not necessary to fight the oppressors.
(2) In 1916 Gandhiji travelled to Champaran (Bihar) to inspire the peasants to struggle against the oppressive plantation system.
(3) In 1917 he organised a Satyagraha to support the peasants of the Kheda district of Gujarat. Affected by crop failure & the plague epidemic, the peasants of Kheda could not pay the revenue.
(4) In 1918 Gandhiji went to Ahmedabad to settle the wage case of Cotton Mill Workers through Satyagraha.
(ii) The Rowlatt Act :
In 1919 Gandhiji decided to launch a Satyagraha against the proposed Rowlatt Act. This Act was passed hurriedly inspite of the opposition of Indian Members of the Council. It gave enormous powers to the government to repress Indian political activities. Gandhiji started non-violent Civil Disobedience against such unjust laws.
(1) On April 6, a hartal was organised.
(2) Rallies were organised in various cities. British administration decided to clamp down on nationalists. Local leaders were picked up from Amritser.
(3) On April 10 police fired on a peaceful procession. People started attack on bank, police stations, post offices etc.
(4) Martial law was imposed.

Trending Articles & Blogs

Download Old Sample Papers For Class X & XII
Download Practical Solutions of Chemistry and Physics for Class 12 with Solutions

Recent Questions Asked