Chapter : 3. Work, Life & Leisure - Cities in Count. World

Men, Women and Family in the City

(a) Men, Women and Family in the City :
(i) The city encouraged a new spirit of individualism. Men and women did not have equal access to this new urban space. Women were forced to withdraw into their homes. The public space became increasingly a male preserve. Most political movements of the nineteenth century, such as Chartism (a movement demanding the vote for all adult males) and the 10-hour movement (limiting hours of work in factories), mobilised large numbers of men.
(ii) By the twentieth century, the urban family had been transformed yet again, by women, who were employed in large numbers to meet war demands. The family now consisted of much smaller units.
(iii) The family became the heart of a new market - of goods and services and of ideas.

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